As part of the Enlightenment tradition, Kant based his ethical theory on the belief that reason should be used to determine how people ought to act. No other virtue has this status because every other virtue can be used to achieve immoral ends the virtue of loyalty is not good if one is loyal to an evil person, for example. The good will is unique in that it is always good and maintains its moral value even when it fails to achieve its moral intentions.
However, it is useful to make the following distinction: Morality is the system through which we determine right and wrong conduct -- i. Ethics is the philosophical study of Morality.
What, then, is a moral theory?
A theory is a structured set of statements used to explain or predict a set of facts or concepts. Seen in this light, it becomes clear that we cannot draw a sharp divide between moral theory and applied ethics e.
For instance, in order to critically evaluate the moral issue of affirmative action, we must not attempt to evaluate what actions or policies are right or wrong independent of what we take to determine right and wrong conduct. You will see, as we proceed, that we do not do ethics without at least some moral theory.
Are moral theories descriptive or prescriptive? In presenting a moral theory, are we merely describing how people, in their everyday 'doings' and 'thinkings,' form a judgement about what is right and wrong, or are we prescribing how people ought to make these judgements?
Most take moral theories to be prescriptive. The descriptive accounts of what people do is left to sociologists and anthropologists.
There have been many different proposals. Theories of Morality 1 Moral Subjectivism Right and wrong is determined by what you -- the subject -- just happens to think or 'feel' is right or wrong. In its common form, Moral Subjectivism amounts to the denial of moral principles of any significant kind, and the possibility of moral criticism and argumentation.
Cultural Relativism is closely linked to Moral Subjectivism. Ethical Egoism is usually based upon Psychological Egoism -- that we, by nature, act selfishly. Divine Command Theory is widely held to have several serious flaws. Is something right or wrong because the gods command it, or do the gods command it because it is right?
If the latter, then right and wrong are independent of the gods' commands -- Divine Command Theory is false. Most think that right and wrong are not arbitrary -- that is, some action is wrong, say, for a reason. The most widely discussed is Aristotle's account. Aristotle, and most of the ancient Greeks really had nothing to say about moral duty, i.
Three steps to the argument: Aristotle thought that humans had a specific function. Comes out of the criticism that all other moral theories are 'masculine' -- display a male bias.
Utilitarianism is a Consequentialist moral theory. All action leads to some end. This is pleasure or happiness. Jeremy Bentham -- the first to formulate Utilitarianism -- did not distinguish between kinds of pleasures.
Utilitarians are not a Hedonist. Utilitarians are concerned with everyone's happiness, so it is Altruistic. Modern versions of Utilitarianism have dropped the idea of maximizing pleasure in favour of maximizing the satisfaction of all relevant peoples' preferences and interests.
For Utilitarians, no action is intrinsically right or wrong.Psychodynamic Theory, Perspective, and Key Concepts. To truly understand psychodynamic therapy, you need to go back to its roots. or moral component that houses our beliefs of right and wrong.
(and perhaps least applied) technique in psychodynamic therapy, but it is certainly not a dead concept yet. A “Freudian slip” is also known. Involving others in our moral decision making means that these others can provide insight or experience which is different from our own.
The second way in which we can learn from discussing moral questions with others is a long-term gain in moral understanding. The following is an excerpt from article DE from the Christian Research Institute.
The full pdf can be viewed by clicking here. Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics.
Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral [ ]. So, internalization serves as a way of secularizing the concept sanctity-of-life as a concept of moral self-evaluation of one’s deeds. On Extrinsic and Intrinsic Values—Theological and Secular Ways of .
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.
Moral Panic Analysis: Past, Present and Future Chas Critcher* Media and Communications Studies, Swansea University Future development of moral panic analysis requires connection to three important sociological themes: discourse, risk and moral regulation.
Moral Panic Analysis: Past, .