Definition[ edit ] There is no universal definition of school bullying; however, it is widely agreed that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: Gender inequality and the prevalence of violence against women in society exacerbate the problem.
It can take many direct and indirect forms, including physical violence, name-calling, taunting, teasing, malicious rumor-spreading, and social exclusion. Once thought of as a normal part of growing up, school bullying is now widely recognized as a serious problem that must be met with systematic preventative efforts.
This article examines the nature, prevalence, and effects of school bullying. It discusses profiles of bullies and victims, and explores the most effective methods now used to combat school bullying. Since the late s, several fatal school shootings committed by the victims of school bullying have brought major media attention to the issue.
The result has been an increase in public awareness about the harmful effects of school bullying and a flurry of local, state, and nationwide programs designed to prevent or at least contain the problem.
In recent years, psychologists, sociologists, and school administrators have all published a plethora of research about school bullying. Definitions of school bullying include four basic elements. First, school bullying does not happen between peers who share an equal or similar degree of power, but always involves a more powerful perpetrator intimidating a weaker subject.
Bullying depends upon an imbalance of power, which can be created by any number of factors, including but not limited to physical size, age, popularity and psychological strength Rigby, ; Junoven, Second, bullying is deliberate; a bully intends to cause harm or distress in his or her victim Scarpaci, Third, bullying can come in direct and indirect forms.
Physical violence, such as shoving, poking, hitting, or tripping, is a form direct bullying. So is verbal bullying, which includes name-calling, teasing, and derision. Indirect bullying is social in nature and involves the bully excluding his or her victim from a peer group.
As children mature, the types of bullying in which they engage tends to change. In recent years, technology-savvy adolescents have begun to use the Internet to conduct 'cyber-bullying' on websites, in chat-rooms, and via e-mail, and to send harassing text messages to mobile phones "Cyber-bullying concerns on the rise," ; Reid et al.
Experts now recognize bullying as a form of violence. If allowed to continue unchecked, school bullying severely compromises school safety.
In order to prevent children from being harmed by school bullying, professional educators and parents should understand the depth of the bullying problem in U. Applications Prevalence of School Bullying Virtually all school children around the world are in some way affected by school bullying Reid et al.
The United States is no exception: Another study has shown that 1 in 5 elementary school children and 1 in 10 middle school students in the U. School bullying is a universal problem throughout the U.
Those students who witness bullying often become distressed, intimidated, and fearful that they themselves might become victims of bullying.
These feelings may harm academic performance and distract attention from school work Reid et al.As the world’s only truly universal global organization, the United Nations has become the foremost forum to address issues that transcend national boundaries and cannot be resolved by any one.
Report: School Crime and Violence Rise The number of teachers who say they've been physically attacked by students is the highest yet.
By Allie Bidwell, Staff Writer. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, Japan, and China In the United States, according to a national intimate services, or caused loss of days at work or school). Thus, it is clear this is an important problem in the United States. In Japan, .
The effects of violence on school performance and behavior typically fall into three categories: school violence as defined by the CDC, witnessed violence, and cultural norms of using violence as a problem solving mechanism (Selekman, Pelt, Garnier, & Baker, ; World Health Organization ).
Each of these will be discussed related to their. An Overview of the School Violence Problem in the United States PAGES 3. WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: school shootings, school violence problem, fights in school. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University.
Exactly what I needed. Mar 16, · The recent school shooting rampage in Ohio has once again focused national attention on the issue of student violence. But experts say such high-profile incidents overshadow an .