LiteratureReviewHQ interviewed me about this page, and have a podcast.
Only gradually do they develop other shots, learning to chip, draw and fade the ball, building on and modifying their basic swing.
In this chapter I explain a suite of techniques which can be used to improve on our vanilla implementation of backpropagation, and so improve the way our networks learn. The discussions are largely independent of one another, and so you may jump ahead if you wish. The philosophy is that the best entree to the plethora of available techniques is in-depth study of a few of the most important.
Mastering those important techniques is not just useful in its own right, but will also deepen your understanding of what problems can arise when you use neural networks. That will leave you well prepared to quickly pick up other techniques, as you need them.
The cross-entropy cost function Most of us find it unpleasant to be wrong.
Soon after beginning to learn the piano I gave my first performance before an audience. I was nervous, and began playing the piece an octave too low.
I was very embarrassed. You can bet that the next time I played before an audience I played in the correct octave!
By contrast, we learn more slowly when our errors are less well-defined. Ideally, we hope and expect that our neural networks will learn fast from their errors. Is this what happens in practice? The example involves a neuron with just one input: Of course, this is such a trivial task that we could easily figure out an appropriate weight and bias by hand, without using a learning algorithm.
However, it turns out to be illuminating to use gradient descent to attempt to learn a weight and bias. Note that you can run the animation multiple times by clicking on "Run" again. Click on "Run" again: This behaviour is strange when contrasted to human learning.
Why is learning so slow? And can we find a way of avoiding this slowdown? So saying "learning is slow" is really the same as saying that those partial derivatives are small.
The challenge is to understand why they are small. This is the origin of the learning slowdown. Introducing the cross-entropy cost function How can we address the learning slowdown?
It turns out that we can solve the problem by replacing the quadratic cost with a different cost function, known as the cross-entropy.
Two properties in particular make it reasonable to interpret the cross-entropy as a cost function.Ancient rhetorical techniques can improve your argumentative writing. A well-crafted written argument can change the world.
Consider the Declaration of Independence or Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Nov 23, · Many an argument has been won by not arguing at all! As an aside, this is an excellent method for getting your own way – make your request, and when it is declined remain silent.
This usually makes the other person so nervous (as no one likes silence) that they may give in just to get out of an uncomfortable situation. Argument Techniques from Classical Rhetoric We can still use many techniques from Classical Rhetoric when we argue in writing.
The two presented here are Status and Appeals. Here are ten argument techniques you should look out for people using, both online and in real life, and why they make for a poor substitute for actual facts and reasoned arguments. Straw Man Arguments.
In arguments, a straw man is an entirely fictitious person, that holds a caricatured version of the beliefs that the creator’s opponent. When writing an argumentative paper, it is important to develop the main idea of each paragraph by using specific details.
Each sentence within that paragraph will contribute to that main idea. By combining some of the techniques within this tab, you can develop your ideas more fully.
Descriptions of common fallacies. Dr. Michael C.
Arguments happen. No matter what kind of relationship you have — with bosses, friends, girlfriends or wives — it‘s inevitable that you will have to deal with disagreements. Although these. When writing an argumentative paper, it is important to develop the main idea of each paragraph by using specific details. Each sentence within that paragraph will contribute to that main idea. By combining some of the techniques within this tab, you can develop your ideas more fully. Quantitative Equity Investing Techniques and strategies for successfulquantitative equitymanagement. Quantitative equity portfolio management is a fundamentalbuilding block of investment management.
Labossiere, the author of a Macintosh tutorial named Fallacy Tutorial Pro , has kindly agreed to allow the text of .