The compiler can then handle most but not all uses of that name without needing the full definition of that name. Declaring a value--without defining it--allows you to write code that the compiler can understand without having to put all of the details. This is particularly useful if you are working with multiple source files, and you need to use a function in multiple files.
Leave a reply A deceleration is a decrease in the fetal heart rate below the fetal baseline heart rate. The nadir of the early deceleration occurs with the peak of Decelerations defined contraction.
The onset of the deceleration occurs after the beginning of the contraction, and the lowest point of the deceleration occurs after the peak of the contraction. The difference in the timing of early decelerations and late decelerations relative to the contraction may be explained by the underlying mechanism for each of these decelerations.
Early decelerations appear to be caused by vagal discharge produced when the head is compressed by uterine contractions.
The onset and depth of early decelerations mirror the shape of the contraction, and tend to be proportional to the strength of the contraction. Late decelerations occur when a fall in the level of oxygen in the fetal blood triggers chemoreceptors in the fetus to cause reflex constriction of blood vessels in nonvital peripheral areas in order to divert more blood flow to vital organs such as the adrenal glands, heart, and brain.
Constriction of peripheral blood vessels causes hypertension that stimulates a baroreceptor mediated vagal response which slows the heart rate.
The time consumed in this two step process accounts for the delay in the timing of the deceleration relative to the contraction. In conditions with reduced placental exchange such as intrauterine growth restriction IUGR measures to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the fetus may not be as effective.
If oxygen continues to be limited hypoxia to the fetal tissues acidosis can develop as result of increased anaerobic metabolism. Significant levels of acid in the blood acidemia can suppress the fetal nervous system leading to decreased variability and direct myocardial depression made evident by shallow late decelerations.
If myocardial depression is severe enough, late decelerations may be absent all together Etiologies of Late Decelerations.An early deceleration is defined as a waveform with a gradual decrease and return to baseline with time from onset of the deceleration to the lowest point of the deceleration (nadir) > 30 seconds.
The nadir of the early deceleration occurs with the peak of a contraction. In the presence of a non-accelerative trace with baseline variability less than 5 bpm the definition would include decelerations less than 15 bpm (RCOG)” 2 • Variable Decelerations are defined as “Variable.
repetitive. a fetal sleep cycle may last up to 60 minutes. opiates or antihypertensives may lead to reduced variability) o fetal.
Variable deceleration is defined as a fetal heart rate pattern of decelerations that are variable in shape and relationship to therapeutic amnioinfusion for variable decelerations) in the. CTG INTERPRETATION Dr. Qurrat ul Ain of no accelerations on an otherwise normal FHR recording is not known • The duration of the acceleration is defined as the time from the initial change in heart rate from the baseline to the time of return to the FHR to baseline.
decelerations Transient episodes of slowing of FHR below the baseline. • A gradual FHR decrease is defined as from the onset to the FHR nadir of 30 seconds or more.
• The decrease in FHR is calculated from the onset to the nadir of the deceleration. • The deceleration is delayed in timing, with the nadir of the deceleration occurring after the peak of the contraction.
verb (used with object), de·cel·er·at·ed, de·cel·er·at·ing. to decrease the velocity of: He decelerates the bobsled when he nears a curve. to slow the rate of increase of: efforts to decelerate inflation.