In this case be expresses the relationship of either essential or incidental equivalence or identity John is a man; John is a musician or specifies an essential or incidental attribute honey is sweet; Susan is angry. It is also used with an adverbial complement to indicate a relationship of location in space or time Bill is at the office; the dance is on Saturday takes a present participle forms the progressive present tensethe man is running takes a past participle forms the passive voice of all transitive verbs and archaically certain intransitive onesa good film is being shown on television tonight; I am done takes an infinitive expresses intention, expectation, supposition, or obligationthe president is to arrive at 9. In Middle English usually with a sense of "skill in scholarship and learning" c. This sense remains in Bachelor of Arts, etc.
These words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid to whom they are sometimes wrongly attributed around Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers which was called "Mesmerism" or " animal magnetism "but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked.
Characteristics[ edit ] A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, and has increased suggestibility. In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel, smell, and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions, even though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment.
The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change; even the subject's memory and awareness of self may be altered by suggestion, and the effects of the suggestions may be extended posthypnotically into the subject's subsequent waking activity.
For example, inIrving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.
Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more likely a particular characteristic is to appear, and the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: Historical definitions[ edit ] The earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid[ contradictory ], who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, and defined as: The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the very antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that often leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep".
Hypnosis typically involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented. The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, and may contain further elaborations of the introduction.
A hypnotic procedure is used to encourage and evaluate responses to suggestions. When using hypnosis, one person the subject is guided by another the hypnotist to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experience, alterations in perception,   sensation,  emotion, thought or behavior.
Persons can also learn self-hypnosis, which is the act of administering hypnotic procedures on one's own. If the subject responds to hypnotic suggestions, it is generally inferred that hypnosis has been induced.
Many believe that hypnotic responses and experiences are characteristic of a hypnotic state. While some think that it is not necessary to use the word "hypnosis" as part of the hypnotic induction, others view it as essential.
Janetnear the turn of the century, and more recently Ernest Hilgard Social psychologists Sarbin and Coe Hypnosis is a role that people play; they act "as if" they were hypnotised.
In his early writings, Weitzenhoffer They explain this by pointing out that, in a sense, all learning is post-hypnotic, which explains why the number of ways people can be put into a hypnotic state are so varied: Hypnotic induction Hypnosis is normally preceded by a "hypnotic induction" technique.
Traditionally, this was interpreted as a method of putting the subject into a "hypnotic trance"; however, subsequent "nonstate" theorists have viewed it differently, seeing it as a means of heightening client expectation, defining their role, focusing attention, etc.
There are several different induction techniques. One of the most influential methods was Braid's "eye-fixation" technique, also known as "Braidism". Many variations of the eye-fixation approach exist, including the induction used in the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale SHSSthe most widely used research tool in the field of hypnotism.
Take any bright object e. The patient must be made to understand that he is to keep the eyes steadily fixed on the object, and the mind riveted on the idea of that one object. It will be observed, that owing to the consensual adjustment of the eyes, the pupils will be at first contracted: They will shortly begin to dilate, and, after they have done so to a considerable extent, and have assumed a wavy motion, if the fore and middle fingers of the right hand, extended and a little separated, are carried from the object toward the eyes, most probably the eyelids will close involuntarily, with a vibratory motion.
If this is not the case, or the patient allows the eyeballs to move, desire him to begin anew, giving him to understand that he is to allow the eyelids to close when the fingers are again carried towards the eyes, but that the eyeballs must be kept fixed, in the same position, and the mind riveted to the one idea of the object held above the eyes.1.
Communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are pfmlures.com includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and pfmlures.com is the plural of medium and can take a plural or singular verb, depending on the sense intended.
‘In the world of sports entertainment, you have to be able to roll with all the punches.’ ‘It's done for leisure and entertainment, and is taken seriously by its participants.’ ‘Look at advertising and the mass media, not to mention corporate entertainment, sport and politics.’. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience. 1 the act or activity of providing pleasure or amusement especially for the public. we didn't stay for the featured entertainment because we don't care for comedy acts; the film is purely for entertainment and not meant to be taken seriously.
Entertainment was provided by jugglers. plays, movies, and other forms of entertainment They played games in the evening for entertainment. plays, movies, and other entertainments. the act of entertaining; agreeable occupation for the mind; diversion; amusement: Solving the daily crossword puzzle is an entertainment for many.
something affording pleasure, diversion, or amusement, especially a performance of some kind: The highlight of the ball was an elaborate entertainment. entertainment meaning: 1. shows, films, television, or other performances or activities that entertain people, or a performance of this type: 2.
public shows, performances, or other ways of enjoying yourself: 3. the activity of taking customers or possible customers out to restaurants, bars, theatres.
Learn more. noun. the act of entertaining; agreeable occupation for the mind; diversion; amusement: Solving the daily crossword puzzle is an entertainment for many.; something affording pleasure, diversion, or amusement, especially a performance of some kind: The highlight of the ball was an elaborate entertainment.
hospitable provision for the needs and wants of guests.
Entertainment consists of performances of plays and films, and activities such as reading and watching television, that give people pleasure. the world of entertainment and international stardom.
There were theatrical entertainments and sporting competitions between local groups.