Pyruvate carboxylase[ edit ] During gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase is the first enzyme in the pathway that synthesizes phosphoenolpyruvate PEP from pyruvate. The enzyme pyruvate carboxylase acts within the mitochodrial matrix to convert pyruvate to oxaloacetate OAAutilizing the energy from the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP. In the next step, OAA is then decarboxylated and simultaneously phosphorylated, which is catalyzed by one of two isoforms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK either in the cytosol or in the mitochondria to produce PEP. Under ordinary gluconeogenic condition, OAA is converted into PEP by mitochondrial PEPCK; the resultant PEP is then transported out of the mitochondria via the citric acid cycle carrier system, and converted into glucose by cytosolic gluconeogenic enzymes.
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic; Oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel Anaerobic; Produce energy without oxygen Describe the "overall summary equation" for cellular respiration.
Loss of electrons from one substance Define reduction. Addition of electrons to another substance Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. A small molecule essential for the activity of some enzymes. Accepts electrons from the breakdown products of the first two stages and passes these electrons from one molecule to another Name the 3 stages of cellular respiration.
Also, state the region of the eukaryotic cell where each stage occurs. Inner membrane of mitochondrian Write a "summary equation" for glycolysis and describe where it occurs in the cell. Explain why it is called a "cycle".
Chemiosmosis Explain how the "slide" of electrons down the electron transport chain is coupled to the production of ATP. Electron carriers alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons.
Each component of the chain becomes reduced when it accepts electrons from its "uphill" neighbor - which ahs a lower affinity for electrons. Explain where and how the respiratory electron transport chain creates a proton gradient. Drives the synthesis of ATP - membrane located. Summarize the net ATP yield from the oxidation of a glucose molecule.
Glycolysis Transition Reaction Citric Acid Cycle Describe the fate of each reactant and the method of production for each product using the balanced equation for cellular respiration.
Alcohol; pyruvate is converted to ethanol 1 releases carbon dioxide from the pyruvate which is converted to the 2-carbon compound acetaldehyde. Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate with a net production of 2 ATP by substrate-level phophorylation.
Explain the "catabolism" for each molecule.The answer by Rick Beelo discusses the role of magnesium ions in relation to catalytic mechanism, but does not include a more general and long-accepted role of the ion.
This is to hold the triphosphate ‘chain’ of ATP in a specific conformation and in this and other ways to enhance the binding to the enzyme, an essential initial step in the.
One ATP is invested in the Step 1, and another ATP is invested in Step 3. Steps 1 and 3 of glycolysis are referred to as "Priming Steps". In Phase 2, two equivalents of g3p are converted to two pyruvates.
Cellular respiration includes the reactions in the cells of your body when they convert the food you eat into a molecule of energy called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, a form your cells can use.
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the energy currency of life, the way that individual cells store and use chemical energy.
Any food or other source of energy a cell takes in is converted to ATP, in which form the mechanisms of the cell can easily use it. In step 1, hexokinase (HK) take a phosphate from ATP and add the phosphate to glucose to create glucosephosphate.
Because a phosphate is taken out, ATP becomes ADP. In step 3, phosphofructokinase (PFK) take a phosphate from ATP and add the phosphate to fructosephosphate to create fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Question 2: Discuss the role of ATP and UTP in the catabolism of monosaccharides other than glucose.
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