Moving to Per-Fragment Lighting The basics of texturing The art of texture mapping along with lighting is one of the most important parts of building up a realistic-looking 3D world.
Bump Opacity Not all scene objects will use all of the texture slots normal and bump maps are mutually exclusive so they can probably reuse the same texture slot assignment.
It is up to the 3D artist to determine which textures will be used by the models in the scene. The application will load the textures that are associated to a material. A texture parameter and an associated texture slot assignment is declared for each of these material properties.
Lights The Light struct stores all the information necessary to define a light in the scene.
Spot lights, point lights and directional lights are not separated into different structs and all of the properties necessary to define any of those light types are stored in a single struct. Diffuse and specular colors are not seperated.
Of course the Position variable only applies to point and spot lights while the Direction variable only applies to spot and directional lights. I store both world space and view space position and direction vectors because I find it easier to work in world space in the application then convert the world space vectors to view space before uploading the lights array to the GPU.
This way I do not need to maintain multiple light lists at the cost of additional space that is required on the GPU. But even 10, lights only require 1. But minimizing the size of the light structs could have a positive impact on caching on the GPU and improve rendering performance.
This is further discussed in the Future Considerations section at the end of this article. In some lighting models the diffuse and specular lighting contributions are separated. I chose not to separate the diffuse and specular color contributions because it is rare that these values differ.
Instead I chose to store both the diffuse and specular lighting contributions in a single variable called Color. The SpotlightAngle is the half-angle of the spotlight cone expressed in degrees. Working in degrees seems to be more intuitive than working in radians. Of course, the spotlight angle will be converted to radians in the shader when we need to compute the cosine angle of the spotlight and the light vector.
Spotlight Angle The Range variable determines how far away the light will reach and still contribute light to a surface. The units of this range are scene specific but generally I try to adhere to the 1 unit is 1 meter specification. For point lights, the range is the radius of the sphere that represents the light and for spotlights, the range is the length of the cone that represents the light.
The Intensity variable is used to modulate the computed light contribution. By default, this value is 1 but it can be used to make some lights brighter or more subtle than other lights.
Lights in the scene can be toggled on and off with the Enabled flag. Lights whose Enabled flag is false will be skipped in the shader. Lights are editable in this demo. A light can be selected by clicking on it in the demo application and its properties can be modified.
To indicate that a light is currently selected, the Selected flag will be set to true. When a light is selected in the scene, its visual representation will appear darker less transparent to indicate that it is currently selected. The Type variable is used to indicate which type of light this is.
It can have one of the following values: The lights array is accessed through a StructuredBuffer. Most lighting shader implementations will use a constant buffer to store the lights array but constant buffers are limited to 64 KB in size which means that it would be limited to about lights before running out of constant memory on the GPU.
Structured buffers are stored in texture memory which is limited to the amount of texture memory available on the GPU usually in the GB range on desktop GPUs.
Texture memory is also very fast on most GPUs so storing the lights in a structured buffer did not impose a performance impact.Oct 05, · Music Info:Dr. Falk - UFO over the Megacity Project files will be added pfmlures.com me know if you have any query related to this tutorial.
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A newsletter a day keeps the FOMO at bay. Just enter your email and we'll take care of the rest. Back to Items of Interest Sub-Table of Contents. Laser Power, Photons, How Much Light?, Beam Profile About HeNe Laser Power Ratings Any given laser - be it a HeNe, argon ion, CO2, or other CW laser; or a pulsed laser like an Nd:YAG, Ti:Sapphire, or excimer, will .