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They regard Saint Benedict as their founder and guide even though he did not establish a Benedictine Order as such.
He wrote a for his monastery at Monte Cassino in Italy and he foresaw that it could be used elsewhere. Monte Cassino was destroyed by the Lombards about A. Meanwhile the Rule found its way to monasteries in England, Gaul, and elsewhere.
At first it was one of a number of rules accepted by a particular monastery but later, especially through the promotional efforts of Charlemagne and his son Louis, it became the rule of choice for monasteries of Europe from the ninth century onwards.
The early medieval monasteries of Europe, those for men and women, followed the Rule of Benedict with local adaptations needed in different climes and cultures. They continued, however, the tradition of community life with its common prayer, reading, and work.
Some of the monasteries were Primate culture essay as centers of evangelization of peoples; others carried on a program of education, art and architecture, and the making of manuscripts. Many monasteries were centers of liturgy and learning in the midst of chaotic times and shifting kingdoms.
The Splendor of Cluny Benedictine monasteries are often characterized as local institutions with a great deal of autonomy. In the Middle Ages they were often founded by the nobility as centers of prayer, communities that would pray for the people, especially the nobles themselves.
The monasteries had little contact with each other though eventually some of them began to relate to each other for the sake of protection from bishops and nobles and for common discipline.
Cluny reformed congregations of black monksas they were called, in practically all parts of Europe. The abbot of Cluny was in effect the superior of all the dependent monasteries though he administered the multitude of abbeys through appointed priors. Cluny excelled in the splendor and length of its liturgy, so much so that its monks had little time for manual labor or reading.
Medieval Twilight The Benedictine monasteries waned at the end of the twelfth century, about the time the Church witnessed the rise of the "modern" orders of Franciscans and Dominicans. The Benedictines, though in decline in members and discipline, continued their round of monastic life but at times without their properly constituted head.
Not a few monasteries were burdened by a commendatory abbota person who was appointed by the pope or a nobleman to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Often, however, he appropriated the wealth of monastic lands without involvement in the actual life of the community.
Roman Reform In the Middle Ages and up to modern times Benedictine monasteries for men and women often formed various associations or unions in order to promote discipline and mutual assistance.
This was in fact mandated by the Council of Trent ; Sess. Monasteries slowly and with much hesitation followed the directives of Pope Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council to establish visitations of monasteries and regular general chapters for the enactment of legislation.
The Reformers and Decline Many Benedictine monasteries were closed at the time of the Protestant Reformation both because the reformers preached against monastic vows as unevangelical and because secular rulers coveted and seized the abundance of properties owned by the monastics.
Congregations of Benedictines continued in the centuries after the Reformation, but most monasteries were closed and expropriated during the Napoleonic era. As a result, their numbers were very few at the beginning of the nineteenth century. New Dawn During the course of the s, however, Benedictines experienced a revival.
Modern Diversity Other congregations ; e. Ottilien Congregation and groupings of American Benedictine women, stressed the missionary endeavors of evangelizing, teaching, and health care. Men and women Benedictines continued to establish new houses in many countries right up to the time of Vatican Council II Since then the number of Benedictines has declined once again, at least in the First and Second World, but it has increased in other regions, e.
Geographic Stability Today Benedictines, both men and women, are still characterized as people who take root in a particular place and who are related to the culture and needs of a specific location. Most are associated together in congregations for purposes of mutual assistance and common discipline.
At the same time they vary widely in the type of monastic life they lead. Some pursue an enclosed life with little involvement in the local Church and society; others insist on various degrees of involvement such as education, parochial ministry, evangelization, publication, health care, etc.Primate Behavior The animal that most resembles us is the ape.
At the zoo, it is easy to observe behavioral and facial expressions in monkeys and apes that are very much similar to our own. Nov 28, · Evolution of color vision in primates essays. 4 stars based on words essay on education system in english one word sentences in essays are movies creating positive organizational culture essay mexican essay guy essay about kashmir beauty death constant beyond love essay hook short essay on mahatma gandhi words.
Essay Instructions: Identify and summarize Robert M. Sapolsky's A Primate's Memoir. In the remaining part of the essay discuss likes and dislikes. In the remaining part of the essay discuss likes and dislikes. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Essay on Primate Culture. Essay on Primate Culture. Length: words ( double-spaced pages) Rating: Powerful Essays.
Open Document. Essay Preview. It has been believed that culture is unique to humans and no other groups of animals have culture, but recent evidence refutes this ideology.
Before getting into the meat of the argument, it is. I think that if culture is defined as learned behavior, than it is reasonable to say that primates posses a form of culture.
Primates have been observed making tools to aid in collecting food and developing communication system, both of which are learned behaviors.