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Not objective and fair, biased towards one point of view Free of errors Properly cite the original source of all information Do not cite where the information came from Easy for other people to find or obtain Difficult for others to obtain How to Find Information No matter how you do your background research, record your sources and take good notes as you go. Your teacher may be able to offer you some tips. Library Research One of the most valuable resources at the library is not a book, but a person. Public librarians, college librarians and certified school librarians are specially trained to teach information literacy.

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For current news and resources see the Framework WordPress site Introduction This Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education Framework grows out of a belief that information literacy as an educational reform movement will realize its potential only through a richer, more complex set of core ideas.

During the fifteen years since the publication of the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education,1 academic librarians and their partners in higher education associations have developed learning outcomes, tools, and resources that some institutions have deployed to infuse information literacy concepts and skills into their curricula.

However, the rapidly changing higher education environment, along with the dynamic and often uncertain information ecosystem in which all of us work and live, require new attention to be focused on foundational ideas about that ecosystem. Students have a greater role and responsibility in creating new knowledge, in understanding the contours and the changing dynamics of the world of information, and in using information, data, and scholarship ethically.

Teaching faculty have a greater responsibility in designing curricula and assignments that foster enhanced engagement with the core ideas about information and scholarship within their disciplines.

Librarians have a greater responsibility in identifying core ideas within their own knowledge domain that can extend learning for students, in creating a new cohesive curriculum for information literacy, and in collaborating more extensively with faculty.

The Framework offered here is called a framework intentionally because it is based on a cluster of interconnected core concepts, with flexible options for implementation, rather than on a set of standards or learning outcomes, or any prescriptive enumeration of skills.

At the heart of this Framework are conceptual understandings that organize many other concepts and ideas about information, research, and scholarship into a coherent whole. These conceptual understandings are informed by the work of Wiggins and McTighe,2 which focuses on essential concepts and questions in developing curricula, and also by threshold concepts3 which are those ideas in any discipline that are passageways or portals to enlarged understanding or ways of thinking and practicing within that discipline.

This Framework draws upon an ongoing Delphi Study that has identified several threshold concepts in information literacy,4 but the Framework has been molded using fresh ideas and emphases for the threshold concepts.

Two added elements illustrate important learning goals related to those concepts: The Framework is organized into six frames, each consisting of a concept central to information literacy, a set of knowledge practices, and a set of dispositions. The six concepts that anchor the frames are presented alphabetically: Authority Is Constructed and Contextual Information Creation as a Process Information Has Value Scholarship as Conversation Searching as Strategic Exploration Neither the knowledge practices nor the dispositions that support each concept are intended to prescribe what local institutions should do in using the Framework; each library and its partners on campus will need to deploy these frames to best fit their own situation, including designing learning outcomes.

For the same reason, these lists should not be considered exhaustive. In addition, this Framework draws significantly upon the concept of metaliteracy,7 which offers a renewed vision of information literacy as an overarching set of abilities in which students are consumers and creators of information who can participate successfully in collaborative spaces.

This Framework depends on these core ideas of metaliteracy, with special focus on metacognition,9 or critical self-reflection, as crucial to becoming more self-directed in that rapidly changing ecosystem.

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Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning. The Framework opens the way for librarians, faculty, and other institutional partners to redesign instruction sessions, assignments, courses, and even curricula; to connect information literacy with student success initiatives; to collaborate on pedagogical research and involve students themselves in that research; and to create wider conversations about student learning, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and the assessment of learning on local campuses and beyond.

Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Threshold concepts are core or foundational concepts that, once grasped by the learner, create new perspectives and ways of understanding a discipline or challenging knowledge domain. Such concepts produce transformation within the learner; without them, the learner does not acquire expertise in that field of knowledge.

Threshold concepts can be thought of as portals through which the learner must pass in order to develop new perspectives and wider understanding. Meyer, Ray Land, and Caroline Baillie. Meyer, Ray Land, and Caroline Baillie, ix—xlii. For information on this unpublished, in-progress Delphi Study on threshold concepts and information literacy, conducted by Lori Townsend, Amy Hofer, Silvia Lu, and Korey Brunetti, see http: Libraries and the Academy 11, no.

Knowledge practices are the proficiencies or abilities that learners develop as a result of their comprehending a threshold concept.

Generally, a disposition is a tendency to act or think in a particular way. More specifically, a disposition is a cluster of preferences, attitudes, and intentions, as well as a set of capabilities that allow the preferences to become realized in a particular way.

Metaliteracy expands the scope of traditional information skills determine, access, locate, understand, produce, and use information to include the collaborative production and sharing of information in participatory digital environments collaborate, produce, and share.

This approach requires an ongoing adaptation to emerging technologies and an understanding of the critical thinking and reflection required to engage in these spaces as producers, collaborators, and distributors. Mackey and Trudi E.

Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners. Frames These six frames are presented alphabetically and do not suggest a particular sequence in which they must be learned.General principles RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in 99 countries to enhance the dissemination of research in Economics and related sciences.

The heart of the project is a decentralized bibliographic database of working papers, journal articles, books, books chapters and software components, all maintained by volunteers.

Please click here to view our sponsor's message. Filed by the ACRL Board on February 2, Adopted by the ACRL Board, January 11, This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License..

PDF Version. Print copies may be purchased from the Association of College and Research Libraries for $ for a package of 10, including standard postage. How to Quote in a Research Paper. A research paper can be made stronger through the use of quotations.

You may use quotes when you need to cite a key piece of primary source material, strengthen your argument through another writer's work. MANUSCRIPT STRUCTURE AND CONTENT 43 EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 5 To maintain positive affect in the face of negative age-related change (e.g., limited time.

In this paper, we have taken a previously published article on nurses' judgements in abortion care performing a systematic critique of the merits of this research using a recognised critiquing framework.

Searching for a research paper
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