IELTS writing task 1, writing task 1, speaking, and reading tips and samples. In not less than words explain if you agree with this view and give your own opinion. Popular events like the football world cup and other international sporting occasions are essential in easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safe way.
Trends and Determinants, Table IV. Developing countries have, during the past decade or so, begun liberalizing their national policies to establish a hospitable regulatory framework for FDI by relaxing rules regarding market entry and foreign ownership, improving the standards of treatment accorded to foreign firms, and improving the functioning of markets.
These "core" policies are important because FDI will simply not take place where it is forbidden or strongly impeded.
However, changes in policies have an asymmetric effect on the location of FDI: In contrast, changes in the direction of less openness for example, nationalization or closure to entry will ensure a reduction in FDI.
FDI policy frameworks are only one determinant of the location of investment among host countries. Countries must also pay attention to other factors that influence investors' locational decisions.
For example, they are emphasizing coherence between the various policies that can affect FDI—in particular, between core FDI policies and trade policies. In addition, they have negotiated an increasing number of bilateral investment treaties and double-taxation treaties.
At the end of1, bilateral investment treaties and 1, double taxation treaties were in effect; of the former and of the latter were concluded in alone.
Both types of treaty reflect the growing role of FDI in the world economy and countries' desire to facilitate it. Equally important, with FDI policy frameworks becoming more similar, countries interested in encouraging investment inflows are focusing on measures that facilitate business.
These include investment promotion, investment incentives, after-investment services, improvements in amenities, and measures that reduce the "hassle" costs of doing business. While by no means new, these measures have proliferated and are becoming more sophisticated, targeting individual investors and investments in particular industries.
After-investment services are noteworthy because they can encourage reinvestment by existing investors, who, if satisfied, provide publicity for the host country, sparking further investment. Financial or fiscal incentives are also used to attract investors, even though they typically figure into investors' location decisions only when the economic determinants are in place.
The most important determinants for the location of FDI are economic considerations, which come into full play once an enabling FDI policy framework is in place.
They may be divided into three groups Table 2: Although many of the factors that attract investment to particular locations—such as abundant natural resources; large host country markets; or low-cost, flexible labor—remain important, their relative importance is changing as transnational corporations, within the context of a globalizing and liberalizing world economy, increasingly pursue new strategies to enhance their competitiveness.
Trade liberalization and FDI and technology flows, combined with deregulation and privatization, have not only improved firms' access to markets for goods and services and to immobile factors of production but also increased competitive pressures in previously protected markets, forcing firms to seek new markets, resources, and assets abroad.
At the same time, technological advances have enhanced firms' ability to coordinate international production networks. More and more, firms are developing portfolios of locational assets—human resources, infrastructure, and market access—to complement their own strengths in order to improve their overall competitiveness.
While traditional motives related to FDI market-seeking, resource-seeking, and efficiency-seeking have not disappeared, they are being incorporated into firms' broader competitive-enhancing strategies.
These have evolved from the traditional stand-alone strategies based on largely autonomous production by foreign affiliates, to simple integration strategies based on a limited number of strong links at the production level, to complex integration strategies that involve, where profitable, splitting the production process into specific activities or functions and performing each of them in the most cost-effective location from the viewpoint of the corporate system as a whole.
Transnational corporations looking to invest not only take for granted the presence of state-of-the-art FDI policy frameworks and a range of business facilitation measures but also seek a combination of cost reduction, larger markets, and "created" assets that can help them maintain a competitive edge.
Created assets include communications infrastructure, marketing networks, technology, and innovative capacity and are critical for enabling firms to maintain their competitiveness in a rapidly changing world. The rising importance of such assets is probably the single most important shift that has occurred among the economic determinants of FDI in a liberalizing and globalizing world economy.
The new configuration also pays more attention to "agglomeration" economies arising from the clustering of economic activity, availability of infrastructure facilities, access to regional markets, and competitive pricing of relevant resources and facilities.
The challenge for developing countries is to develop a well-calibrated and, preferably, unique combination of factors determining FDI location and to match those determinants with corporations' strategies.
Policies intended to strengthen national innovation systems and encourage the spread of technology are central because they underpin the ability to create assets.
Conclusion Recognizing that FDI can contribute to economic development, all governments want to attract it. Indeed, the world market for such investment is highly competitive, and developing countries, in particular, seek such investment to accelerate their development efforts.
With liberal policy frameworks becoming commonplace and losing some of their traditional power to attract FDI, governments are paying more attention to measures that actively facilitate it.
Still, the economic determinants remain key. What is likely to be more critical in the future is the distinctive combination of locational advantages and, especially, created assets that a country or region can offer potential investors.
Trends and Determinants New York and Geneva:Educating Children in Poor Countries In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of .
Should they be given more privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into their private lives? Should developing countries pay more attention towards education or improving business standards?
There is an age after which one’s efficiency decreases. learning and will pay more attention to learning outcomes; and policymakers will use quality of education in developing countries can be improved.
2. THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING QUALITY Quality Matters and health of students are important influences on quality education. 4. Improving institutional funding and management . includes the business standards and managerial know-how that feature single provider, more countries are competing to gain a share of the expanding market.
|Search This Blog||Others are of the opinions that schools should be open to all children with varied interests.|
|Tips and Samples||So as to improve my writing skill. Should developing countries concentrate on improving industrial skills and modern technology or should they promote education first?|
|Find an Essay:||Should developing countries shift from focusing on improving schools to improving parents?|
|IELTS To Go Abroad: IELTS Writing Based on Themes||Some people believe that only pupils of similar interests should be given admissions in schools. Others are of the opinions that schools should be open to all children with varied interests.|
It was are devoted towards improving the road network, especially in the major urban areas. more market-oriented economic policies through much of the developing world—but most importantly in China and India—the number of poor people worldwide has fallen by as much as million, even as the world’s population has risen by about billion since Developing countries are those which are not fully developed and going to progress.
some people think that developing nations are concentrate on their education and improve their business standards.