Prostate cancer is a serious disease that affects thousands of men each year who are middle-aged or older. Most prostate cancers occur in men older than age The prostate is regulated by the hormone testosterone and produces seminal fluid, also known as semen.
There is a growing body of evidence that a diet low in fat and animal products and rich in fruits and vegetables, including the cruciferous type, is protective against prostate cancer. This protection may be partially explained by a fibre found in fruits… Causes The causes of prostate cancer are not clear.
However, many cases of the disease appear to be related to aberrant cell signaling that involves male androgen hormones, particularly testosterone and its metabolites. Within certain tissues, testosterone may be converted into one of two active compounds— estradiol or dihydrotestosterone.
Whereas estradiol promotes the growth of prostate cancer cellsdihydrotestosterone inhibits the programmed death apoptosis of those cells. Testosterone itself appears to play a central role in maintaining prostate cells and stimulating apoptosis when abnormal cells arise.
However, the mechanism by which testosterone and its active derivatives contribute to the development of prostate cancer is not entirely understood.
As their names imply, they are commonly found in mutated forms in some women with breast cancer.
However, studies have shown that men carrying mutations in BRCA2 have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer, and mutations in either gene can significantly reduce survival.
Several studies have revealed an association between hereditary susceptibility to prostate cancer and sequence variations in a gene called RNASEL ribonuclease Lwhich plays a role in maintaining immunity against viral infections. A common RNASEL variant involves a mutation that results in decreased activity of the encoded ribonuclease L proteinthereby reducing immune defense against viruses.
Men who inherit this mutation have a significant increase in risk of prostate cancer. Symptoms When the prostate gland becomes cancerous, it can put pressure on the urethra, causing frequent or painful urination.
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Such pressure can also cause difficulty in urinating, a weak and intermittent urine flow, or blood in the urine. The cancerous growth may also put pressure on the nerves required for erectioncausing impotence or sexual dysfunction. Other symptoms of prostate cancer include swollen lymph nodes in the groin and pain in the pelvis, hips, back, or ribs.
Diagnosis Prostate cancers usually grow very slowly, and individuals may not display symptoms for some time. If the prostate is enlarged, preliminary diagnosis can be made by rectal examination or transrectal ultrasound TRUS.
A blood test for prostate-specific antigen PSA may be used to detect prostate tumours in their earliest stages in high-risk individuals. If any of these tests suggest cancer, a biopsy is done to confirm the diagnosis.
When caught early, prostate cancer is treatable. A large majority of prostate cancers are diagnosed either before they have spread or when they have spread only locally. Survival rates in these cases are very high.
This is especially true for patients who are elderly or in otherwise poor health. If treatment is required, the physician may use surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of two or more of these approaches.
Surgery is usually done only if the cancer has not spread from the prostate. The removal of the entire prostate plus some surrounding tissues radical prostectomy may be considered if examination of the pelvic lymph nodes reveals that they are not cancerous.
Surgical risks include impotence and urinary incontinence. A second surgical procedure, transurethral resection of the prostate TURPis used to relieve symptoms but does not remove all of the cancer.Men can get early treatment and minimize benign prostatic hyperplasia effects by recognizing lower urinary tract symptoms and identifying an enlarged prostate.
Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Researchers have not found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in . Prostate biopsy: Your doctor may order a biopsy to help confirm a prostate cancer diagnosis.
For a biopsy, a healthcare provider removes a small piece of your prostate gland for examination. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men (after skin cancer), but it can often be treated successfully. If you have prostate cancer or are close to someone who does, knowing what to expect can help you cope.
Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. Signs of prostate cancer include a weak flow of urine or frequent urination. Tests that examine the prostate and blood are used to detect (find) and diagnose prostate cancer.
Certain factors affect. Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Enlarge Anatomy of the lymph system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymph (clear fluid) and lymphocytes travel through the.
Elevated prostate serum antigen (PSA): Although the PSA test is not useful to actually diagnose prostate cancer, it predicts the risk of prostate cancer being present.
Currently, most prostate cancers are discovered when a prostate biopsy is performed after a raised serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test is detected.