James Naismith, created in the s, it developed as much through colleges as it did through professional teams and leagues, with the modern National Basketball Association emerging around Covers the Origins, Growth, Records and History of American Football Ice Hockey, whose history is traced to Canada as early as the s, though scholars debate its origin. The modern sport emerged in the late s in Montreal, with the National Hockey League forming in Hockey is another sport in which early development took place as much in college as it did in professional leagues.
Medieval football All modern forms of football have roots in the "folk football" of pre-industrial English society.
It was essentially a public holiday event with Shrove Tuesday in particular a traditional day for games across the country.
It is generally thought that the games were "free-for-alls" with no holds barred and extremely violent. As for kicking and handling of the ball, it is certain that both means of moving the ball towards the goals were in use.
The FIFA history says "there was scarcely any progress at all in the development of football for hundreds of years but, although it was persistently forbidden, it was never completely suppressed".
Originally written in Norman French, a translation of the decree includes: It imposed a ban on the levying of money for "foteball". The following year, Henry IV imposed fines of 20 shillings on certain mayors and bailiffs who had allowed football and other "misdemeanours" to occur in their towns.
This is the earliest documentary evidence of football being played throughout England. He insisted that the game had "a positive educational value as it promoted health and strength".
He suggested that it would improve if there were a limited number of participants per team and a referee in full control of proceedings. Infor instance, it was banned in Manchester because of broken windows. The Puritans objected to it for a different reason.
In their view, it was a "frivolous amusement", as were the theatre and several other sports.
The big issue in the Puritan mindset was "violation of the Sabbath" and, once in power, they were able to impose a ban on Sunday entertainment which, in the case of sport, still prevailed for years after the Restoration.
Folk football was still played on weekdays, though, especially on holidays. It continued to be disorganised and violent.
A letter from a certain Dr Bentley to the Bishop of Ely on the subject of university statutes includes a complaint about students being "perfectly at Liberty to be absent from Grace", in order to play football referred to as "Foot-Ball" or cricket, and not being punished for their conduct as prescribed in the statutes.
In the meantime, folk football continued to be played according to local rules and customs. It was essentially a game for large numbers played over wide distances with goals that were as much as three miles apart, as at Ashbourne.
At Whitehaventhe goals were a harbour wall and a wall outside the town. Matches in Derby involved about a thousand players.
Generally, the ball could be kicked, thrown or carried but it is believed there were some places at which only kicking was allowed. Whatever rules may have been agreed beforehand, there is no doubt at all that folk football was extremely violent, even when relatively well organised.
Change was brought about by industrialisation and the growth of towns as people moved away from the country. The very idea of a game taking several hours over huge areas ran counter to "the discipline, order and organisation necessary for urban capitalism".
As the 19th century began, football became increasingly significant in the public schools because it was well suited to the ideals of the " Muscular Christianity " cult. It was, like cricket, perceived to be a "character-building" sport. The policy was in response to widespread belief that past empires had fallen because the ruling class became soft.The Module Directory provides information on all taught modules offered by Queen Mary during the academic year The modules are listed alphabetically, and you can search and sort the list by title, key words, academic school, module code and/or semester.
Zico called this match “the day football died”, and it certainly was the death of their formation. We can also see the famous total football structure of Ajax, and the and of European champions, Celtic and Liverpool. The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph.
Hundreds of circular steps were cast into a natural depression that surrounded the pitch, with slivers cut into the ground at its four corners to provide access.
News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services. In his best seller The Blind Side, Michael Lewis explains the evolution of football's left tackle position.
Lewis rightly shows how left tackles have evolved from anonymous bludgeoners to highly paid, important players charged with protecting the quarterback from speed rushers like Lawrence Taylor.
But the rise of the left tackle is old news, as the game has evolved yet again.