Family P A K P Y There are, of course, many other non-"Western" non-Alexandrian manuscripts and groupings, most of which Von Soden listed as "I" even though they are clearly primarily Byzantine; the student who wishes more information is referred to the work of Wisse on the Claremont Profile Method. Outside of the Gospels, many of these groups disappear or at least cannot be recognized. Kr, however, endures, and a new group, Kc, appears. Von Soden's work on the Byzantine text has generally been accepted often for lack of an alternative; no one wants to have to re-do his work.
In these countries, divorce is relatively simple and socially accepted.
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In the Westthe prevailing view toward marriage today is that it is based on a legal covenant recognizing emotional attachment between the partners and entered into voluntarily. In the West, marriage has evolved from a life-time covenant that can only be broken by fault or death to a contract that can be broken by either party at will.
Other shifts in Western marriage since World War I include: There emerged a preference for maternal custody of children after divorce, as custody was more often settled based on the best interests of the child, rather than strictly awarding custody to the parent of greater financial means.
Both spouses have a formal duty of spousal support in the event of divorce no longer just the husband [ clarification needed ] Out of wedlock children have the same rights of support as legitimate children In most countries, rape within marriage is illegal and can be punished Spouses may no longer physically abuse their partners and women retain their legal rights upon marriage.
In some jurisdictions, property acquired since marriage is not owned by the title-holder. This property is considered marital and to be divided among the spouses by community property law or equitable distribution via the courts.
Marriages are more likely to be a product of mutual love, Types of scholars than economic necessity or a formal arrangement among families.
Remaining single by choice is increasingly viewed as socially acceptable and there is less pressure on young couples to marry. Marriage is no longer obligatory. Interracial marriage is no longer forbidden. Asia and Africa[ edit ] Key facts concerning the marriage law in Africa and Asia: Marital rape is legal in most parts Africa and Asia alike.
Child marriage is legal in most parts of Africa and Asia alike.
Arranged marriage is prevalent in many parts of Africa and Asia alike, especially in rural regions. Same-sex marriage is illegal in most parts of Africa and Asia alike.
Polygamy is legal in many parts of Africa and Asia, but tends to be illegal in most Communist countries and legal in most Muslim countries Divorce is legal in all parts in Africa and Asia, but wives seeking divorce have fewer legal rights than husbands in Muslim countries than in Communist countries.
Some societies permit polygamyin which a man could have multiple wives; even in such societies however, most men have only one. In such societies, having multiple wives is generally considered a sign of wealth and power. The status of multiple wives has varied from one society to another. In Imperial Chinaformal marriage was sanctioned only between a man and a woman, although among the upper classes, the primary wife was an arranged marriage with an elaborate formal ceremony while concubines could be taken on later with minimal ceremony.
After the rise of Communismonly strictly monogamous marital relationships are permitted, although divorce is a relatively simple process. Monogamy, polyandry, and polygyny[ edit ] Polyandry a woman having multiple husbands occurs very rarely in a few isolated tribal societies. These societies include some bands of the Canadian Inuit,[ citation needed ] although the practice has declined sharply in the 20th century due to their conversion from tribal religion to Christianity by Moravian missionaries.
Additionally, the Spartans were notable for practicing polyandry. These people have agreements with their spouses that permit other intimate relationships or sexual partners.
Therefore, the concept of marriage need not necessarily hinge on sexual or emotional monogamy. Christian acceptance of monogamy[ edit ] In the Christian society, a "one man one woman" model for the Christian marriage was advocated by Saint Augustine AD with his published letter The Good of Marriage.
To discourage polygamy, he wrote it "was lawful among the ancient fathers: For there is not now necessity of begetting children, as there then was, when, even when wives bear children, it was allowed, in order to a more numerous posterity, to marry other wives in addition, which now is certainly not lawful.
Augustine's letters were popular and influential. The Codex Justinianus was the basis of European law for 1, years. Several exceptions have existed for various Biblical figures, incestuous relationships such as Abraham and Sarah,  Nachor and Melcha,  Lot and his Daughters,  Amram and Jochabed  and more.
Contemporary Western societies[ edit ] In 21st century Western societies, bigamy is illegal and sexual relations outside marriage are generally frowned-upon, though there is a minority view accepting or even advocating open marriage.
However, divorce and remarriage are relatively easy to undertake in these societies. This has led to a practice called serial monogamywhich involves entering into successive marriages over time.
Serial monogamy is also sometimes used to refer to cases where the couples cohabitate without getting married. Unique practices[ edit ] Some parts of India follow a custom in which the groom is required to marry with an auspicious plant called Tulsi before a second marriage to overcome inauspicious predictions about the health of the husband.
This also applies if the prospective wife is considered to be 'bad luck' or a 'bad omen' astrologically.Net Price Calculator.
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Awards are for up to 4 years and $, per year. The type, functions, and characteristics of marriage vary from culture to culture, and can change over time.
In general there are two types: civil marriage and religious marriage, and typically marriages employ a combination of both (religious marriages must often be licensed and recognized by the state, and conversely civil marriages, while not sanctioned under religious law, are nevertheless.
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The Stamps Scholarship is the top scholarship opportunity available at. types of culture Research Paper researched four types of organizational culture, which may be accepted by companies.
The first type is “the power culture”, which means that the power is concentrated in one person and dominated by one person in the company (Greener, ). The meaning of work literature is the product of a long tradition of rich inquiry spanning many disciplines. Yet, the field lacks overarching structures that would facilitate greater integration, consistency, and understanding of this body of research.